HWARANG TAEKWON-DO CANBERRA
(2nd & 1st kup)
Reference: Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do
The forceful and finer techniques of attack and defence are largely dependent on a correct stance. The stance is the starting point of every Taekwon-do movement.
Stability, agility, balance and flexibility are the controlling factors.
Basic principles for a proper stance are:
- Keep the back straight, with few exceptions.
- Relax the shoulders.
- Tense the abdomen.
- Maintain correct facing (full, half or side facing the opponent).
- Maintain equilibrium.
- Make use of knee spring properly.
VERTICAL STANCE (Soojik Sogi)
- Move one foot to either front or side at a distance of one shoulder width between the big toes.
- The ratio of body weight is 60% on the rear leg and 40 % on the front.
- Keep the toes of both feet pointed approximately 15 degrees inward.
- Keep the legs straight.
When the right foot is in the rear, the stance is called a right vertical stance and vice-versa. It is always half facing, both in attack and defence.
1st Grade Black Tip Grading Requirements
MEANING OF RED BELT- Signifies danger cautioning the student to exercise self-control and warning the opponent to stay away.
Sitting stance palm middle pushing block
L-stance upward punch
L-stance obverse middle punch
L-stance side elbow thrust
Close stance inner forearm side front block
Vertical stance knife-hand downward strike
4-direction elbow thrust
- Point of chin
- Solar plexus
Knife-hand downward strike
- Shoulder joint
Side elbow thrust
- Solar plexus
- Flying Front Snap, Side, Back, Turning, Reverse Hooking, Reverse Turning Kicks
Hwarang Tul -29 Movements
- Is named after the Hwarang youth group which originated in the Silla dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry division, where Taekwon-do developed into maturity.
Concept: Revision of Evasion, circles, arm-bars, V-locks & S-locks
SPEED AND REFLEX (Sokdo ea banung)
It is essential for the students of Taekwon-do to understand the relation of the speed and the execution time of techniques in order to apply them effectively.
Achieving precise measurements of these factors has been very difficult due to the great speed at which Taekwon-do techniques are performed. However, in April of 1973, I conducted an experiment to measure the precise speed and execution time of various techniques.
The approach used was multi-flash strobe photography. Two EG & G control units and two flashes in reflectors were used to record movements on film. This experiment was conducted at the M.I.T. strobe lab with special permission from Professors Edgerton and Miller.
One remarkable fact is that the execution times of side piercing kick which came in at 1/10 of a second (two intervals of 20 flashes per second) and hooking kick which came in at just a little more than 1/10 of a second (three and a half intervals of 20 flashes per second), are shorter than the normal reflex time, which means that it is impossible for anyone to block these kicks unless he can detect them before the leg is lifted off the floor; i.e., know what kick is coming before it is executed.
Normal reflex time is the elapsed time of reflex action. Reflex action consists of behaviour in which the reactions usually occur as direct and immediate responses to particular stimuli. Here we are dealing with conditioned reflexes, which can be defined as built-up adjustments to responding by blocking or moving out of the path. Normal reflex time has been experimentally determined to be around 2/10 of a second, at the quickest.
Execution of a flying front kick came in at 1/10 of a second (one interval of 20 flashes per second) while a punch measured 3/100 of a second ( one interval of 30 flashes per second). All these techniques can be blocked if we wait until an opponent begins to execute them , since the execution times of these techniques are shorter than the time it takes for our reflexes to respond. Therefore, we must be able to detect the on-coming of these techniques beforehand. This is the reason why one must gaze at the opponents eyes at all times and not at the legs or arms.
At this point it would be advantageous to introduce a formula which will enable the student to further understand the significance of speed in the execution of Taekwon-do techniques.
The formula we can use to calculate the power of any technique is:
P = 1/2 MV
P stands for power
1/2 is the constant
M stands for mass
V stands for velocity or speed
This equation clearly reveals why developing speed is the most important factor in developing power.
For example, if the mass is increased by a factor of three (with the speed kept constant) the the power is also increased by a factor of three. But if the speed is increased by a factor of three (with mass kept constant) then the power is increased by a factor of nine.
Hence, with this formula we can measure the power of each technique:
Power = (1/2) x (mass) x (velocity)
= (1/2) x (mass) x (velocity) x (velocity)
And speed (velocity) can be expressed as
V = (distance of last interval) x (execution time of last interval)
This experiment has been a simple demonstration of how fast and powerful Taekwon-do techniques can be practised properly as taught.
This experiment was contributed by Jae Hun Kim, 3rd dan black belt (1973).
The story of Hwa-Rang
The Hwa-Rang (‘Flower of Youth’) were a group of young knights during the Shilla Dynasty (668-935) who trained their bodies and minds by devoting themselves to hunting, education and the martial arts. The Hwa-Rang were generally noble young men who dedicated themselves to preparing to serve the nation in war. Their tough training, devotion to country and fierce loyalty were important in helping Shilla to defeat its neighbours, Koguryo and Paekche, unifying the Korean peninsula under one king.
Hwa-Rang warriors had to be men of character, virtue and courage. They were chosen by popular election from the sons of nobility and consisted of hundreds of thousands of members. They had to take a ten-year training program which taught them to be brave, to love their country and to help their fellow men. They climbed rugged mountains to harden their bodies, swam fierce rivers in the coldest months and trained like warriors to improve their moral principles and military skills. They entertained themselves with music and poetry, and travelled around the country visiting scenic mountains and rivers. Their warrior code was to serve the king; to be true to one’s parents; to be faithful to one’s friends; not to retreat in battle; and not to kill without reason. The Hwa-Rang took these rules very seriously.
One of the most famous Hwa-Rang warriors was Kwan-Chang, who became a Hwa-Rang commander at the age of 16. In 655, he was captured and taken before the Paekche general, Gye-Baek. Surprised by Kwan-Chang's youthfulness, Gye-Baek decided not to execute him, remarking, "Alas, how can we match the army of Shilla! Even a young boy like this has such courage."
The Hwa-Rang tradition and the practice of martial arts grew unpopular during the Chosun Dynasty. Some Koreans, however, continued to practice the Hwa-Rang skills, notably Admiral Yi Soon-sin (Choong-Moo) and the Buddhist monk Hyoo-Jong (So-San), both of whom were instrumental in defeating the Japanese invaders in 1597.
- Knights of Shilla who helped unify Korea in the seventh century
- Trained in the martial arts and learnt poetry, dancing, arts and science
- Literal meaning: ‘Flower of Youth’
- Had a strict, five-point moral code
- 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Taekwon-Do began
1st Degree Black Belt Grading Requirements
Walking stance inward knife-hand high front strike
Walking stance reverse knife-hand high front strike
Walking stance twin palm upward block
L-stance forearm low block
L-stance X-knife-hand checking block
Sitting stance middle front block
Sitting stance back-fist high side strike
Flying side piercing kick
Middle back piercing kick
Inward knife-hand high front strike
- Upper neck
- Angle of mandible
- Neck artery
3600 flying axe kick
- Bridge of nose
Inward reverse knife-hand high front strike
- Neck artery
- Point of chin
- Adam’s apple
- Angle of mandible
- Flying Front Snap, Side, Back, Turning, Reverse Hooking, Reverse Turning Kicks
- level 3 Push ups (Clap)
- level 3 Crunches (legs straight up)
- level 3 Squats (Tuck jump squats)
- level 3 Russian Twists
- level 3 Back Crunches
BREAKING - Only for ages 14 and higher (Under 18's, parental permission required)
- Basic kicks: Front, Turning, Side, Reverse turning or hooking & Downward. (Back kick optional)
Under 17 Single board only. 17 and over 2 boards (Front, side, & turning only)
Over 89 kgs in weight, 3 boards (Side, & turning only)
- Basic Hands: Fore-fist, Elbow & Knife-hand (Back-fist optional)
Choong Moo Tul - 30 Movements
- Was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Yi dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armoured battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his loyalty to the king.
Concept: All previous techniques freestyle (demo recommended)
Choong-Moo: A Korean Military Hero
Choong-Moo, the man, is better known as Admiral Yi Soon-sin, arguably Korea’s greatest military hero. A master naval tactician, Admiral Yi inflicted heavy defeats on the Japanese invaders during the Im-jin Wae-ran wars of the late sixteenth century, forcing them to withdraw from Korea and demolishing nearly their entire fleet with his unique and deadly turtle boats. His posthumous title, Choong-Moo Kong, means ‘Lord of Loyalty and Chivalry’ and is used in one of South Korea's most esteemed military honours, the Order of Choong-Moo. Loyalty and chivalry, therefore, are two personal characteristics to which all Choong-Moo Taekwon-Do students are encouraged and expected to aspire.
My life is simple, my food is plain, and my quarters are uncluttered. In all things, I have sought clarity. I face the troubles and problems of life and death willingly. Virtue, integrity and courage are my priorities. I can be approached, but never pushed; befriended, but never coerced; killed, but never shamed.
Admiral Yi Soon-sin
The Hideyoshi Invasions
In 1592, Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi ordered 150,000 armed troops to invade Korea, angered by its refusal to help him conquer China. After landing at Pusan, the Japanese marched north and reached Seoul easily – the Korean resistance had been hastily organised and was hardly a match for the heavily armed and well-trained soldiers. King Sonjo was forced to flee the capital, seeking refuge at the Yalu River on Korea’s northernmost border. Even with the help of China, the Koreans appeared doomed to succumb to Japanese occupation. Indeed, their combined forces soon suffered another heavy defeat at Pyongyang.
The Turtle Boats
The kobuk-son, or ‘turtle boat’, was so named because the iron dome covering its deck looked like a turtle’s shell. Large spikes protruded from the dome to stop enemies from boarding the ship. Cannons were positioned behind small openings all around the boat, allowing the crew to fire in any direction they wished, while archers were able to fire burning arrows at the sails and rigging of enemy ships without fear of being hit themselves. The large dragon’s head on the bow was not only a terrifying sight for the Japanese, but it also contained a small fireplace in which sulphur and saltpetre could be burned – the resulting smoke leaving the enemy dazed and confused.
Victory at Hansan Island
But even as the Japanese forged north towards China, small bands of Korean resistance fighters were staunchly defending their country in the south. One of them, Admiral Yi, repeatedly destroyed reinforcement fleets from Japan at Hansan Island, off the southern coast of Korea near Pusan. Although his turtle boats were much smaller than the Japanese warships, they were protected from the arrows and other missiles fired upon them - and therefore were able to get within close range and destroy their targets at will. With their supplies and reinforcements cut off by Admiral Yi and his navy, the Japanese generals far away in the north were forced to retreat and eventually chose to abandon their quest.
Choong-Moo Kong sailed to Kyonnae-ryang where he saw seven enemy vanguard vessels advancing in their direction, followed by many other crafts spread out all over the sea. He said, “Here the sea is narrow and the shallow harbour unfit for battle, so we must lure them out to the open sea to destroy them in a single blow.” Choong-Moo Kong waved his flag, beat his drum and shouted the order to attack. In an instant, our warships spread their sails, turned round in a ‘Crane-Wing’ formation and darted forward, pouring down cannon balls and fire arrows on the enemy vessels like hail and thunder. Bursting into flame with blinding smoke, 73 enemy vessels were soon burning in a red sea of blood.
Yi Pun, Admiral Yi’s nephew
Admiral Yi is Betrayed
His overwhelming success against the Japanese had made Admiral Yi a national hero, but it also made his rivals extremely jealous. One of these, a fellow officer named Won Kyun, conspired with a Japanese spy to get rid of Yi. Together, they hatched a plot to convince the Korean military leaders that Admiral Yi should be sent to intercept some Japanese ships on their way to destroy Korea – a complete lie. Realising that he was being set up, Admiral Yi refused to undertake the mission and was sacked by the king. Won Kyun was made naval commander in his place.
Yi was taken to Seoul where he was put in prison, beaten and tortured – and even sentenced to death. But the people pleaded with King Sonjo to set him free, begging for their hero’s life. King Sonjo released Yi, but relegated him to the rank of an ordinary foot soldier – a duty which he performed honourably and without complaint, remaining loyal to his country even in the face of humiliation and deceit.
The Second Japanese Invasion
Hideyoshi launched a second invasion in 1597, destroying the Korean fleet with ease and beheading the traitorous Won Kyun. However, the Chinese and Korean resistance was better prepared this time and managed to turn the Japanese back before they reached Seoul. Restored to his rightful post, Admiral Yi was able to lead what was left of his fleet to victory. Hideyoshi died and Japan lost interest in trying to conquer Korea or China. But Admiral Yi set upon the retreating Japanese, determined to destroy every ship in the fleet. He nearly succeeded, sinking over 200 ships and handing Japan its worst military defeat for the next 350 years.
An Honourable Death
During that final battle against the retreating Japanese in November 1598, Admiral Yi was felled by a chance bullet. His nephew recalled what happened:”At dawn, Choong-Moo Kong plunged his entire fleet into a final battle with the enemy, thundering ‘Charge!’. Suddenly a stray bullet from the enemy vessel struck him. ‘The battle is at its height; do not announce my death!’. With these words, he died.”
Admiral Yi’s Philosophy
Admiral Yi wrote that a warrior must master three roads, four obligations, five skills, and ten keys to security.
"The three roads are knowledge of the world; understanding of things as they are; and wisdom toward humanity.
The four obligations are to provide national security with minimal cost; to lead others unselfishly; to suffer adversity without fear; and to offer solutions without laying blame.
The five skills are to be flexible without weakness; to be strong without arrogance; to be kind without vulnerability; to be trusting without naïveté; and to have invincible courage. The ten keys to security are purity of purpose, sound strategy, integrity, clarity, lack of covetousness, lack of addiction, a reserved tongue, assertiveness without aggression, being firm and fair, and patience."
DEFINITION OF TAE KWON-DO
TKD is a version of unarmed combat designed for the purpose of self-defence. It is more than just that, however.
It is the scientific use of the body in the method of self-defence; a body that has gained the ultimate use of its facilities through intensive physical and mental training.
It is a martial art that has no equal in either power or technique. Though it is a martial art, its discipline, technique and mental training are the mortar for building a strong sense of justice, fortitude, humility and resolve. It is this mental conditioning that separates the true practitioner from the sensationalist, content with only mastering the fighting aspect of the art.
This is one of the reasons that Taekwon-do is called an art of self-defence. It also implies a way of thinking and life, particularly in instilling a concept and spirit of strict self-imposed discipline and an ideal of noble moral rearmament.
Translated literally “Tae” stands for jumping or flying, to kick or smash with the foot. “Kwon” denotes the fist--chiefly to punch or destroy with the hand or fist. “Do” means an art or way--the right way built and paved by the saints and sages in the past. Thus taken collectively “Taekwon-do” indicates the mental training and the techniques of unarmed combat for self-defence as well as health, involving the skilled application of punches, kicks, blocks and dodges with bare hands and feet to the rapid destruction of the moving opponent or opponents.
Taekwon-do definitely enables the weak to possess a fine weapon together with a confidence to defend him or herself and defeat the opponent as well.
Of course, wrongly applied, Taekwon-do can be a lethal weapon. Therefore mental training must always be stressed to prevent the student from misusing it.
Continual training is essential to keep oneself in top form and physical condition. In training, all the muscles of the human body will be used.
From the use of one’s muscles, it will be possible to harness all available power generated by every muscular contraction. It will then be necessary to deliver such power to the human target especially to where the most vulnerable points or vital spots of one’s opponent are located, in particular when the opponent is in motion.
At this point, it is necessary to remind the students that this art of self-defence is specially designed for swift retaliation against the moving aggressor.
Most of the devastating manoeuvres in Taekwon-Do are based specially on the initial impact of a blow plus the consequential additional force provided by the rebound of the opponent’s moving part of the body. Similarly by using the attacker’s force of momentum, the slightest push is all that is needed to upset his or her equilibrium and to topple him or her.
In the case of the students of Taekwon-Do who have been in constant practice or the experts themselves, they spend no time thinking; as such an action comes automatically to them. Their actions, in short, have become conditioned reflexes.
2nd Kup Pattern
HWA-RANG - 2nd kup
Movements - 29
Ready Posture - CLOSED READY STANCE C
- Move the left foot to B to form a sitting stance toward D while executing a middle pushing block to D with the left palm.
- Execute a middle punch to D with the right fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.
- Execute a middle punch to D with the left fist while maintaining a sitting stance toward D.
- Execute a twin forearm block while forming a left L-stance toward A, pivoting with the left foot.
- Execute an upward punch with the left fist while pulling the right side fist in front of the left shoulder, maintaining a left L-stance toward A.
- Execute a middle punch to A with the right fist while forming a right fixed stance toward A in a sliding motion.
- Execute a downward strike with the right knife-hand while forming a left vertical stance toward A, pulling the right foot.
- Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a middle punch to A with the left fist.
- Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a low block to D with the left forearm.
- Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.
- Pull the left foot toward the right foot while bringing the left palm to the right forefist, at the same time bending the right elbow about 45 degrees outward.
- Execute a middle side piercing kick to D with the right foot while pulling both hands in the opposite direction and then lower it to D forming a left L-stance toward D, at the same time executing a middle outward strike to D with the right knife-hand.
- Move the left foot to D forming a left walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the left fist.
- Move the right foot to D forming a right walking stance toward D at the same time executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.
- Move the left foot to E turning anti-clockwise to form a right L-stance toward E while executing a middle guarding block to E with a knife-hand.
- Move the right foot to E forming a right walking stance toward E while executing a middle thrust to E with the right straight finger tip.
- Move the right foot on line EF forming a right L-stance toward F while executing a middle guarding block to F with a knife-hand.
- Execute a high turning kick to DF with the right foot and lower it to F.
- Execute a high turning kick to CF with the left foot and lower it to F, forming a right L-stance toward F while executing a middle guarding block to F with a knife-hand. Perform 18 and 19 in a fast motion.
- Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a low block to C with the left forearm.
- Execute a middle punch to C with the right fist while forming a right L-stance toward C, pulling the left foot.
- Move the right foot to C forming a left L-stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the left fist.
- Move the left foot to C forming a right L-stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.
- Execute a pressing block with an X-fist while forming a left walking stance toward C, slipping the left foot to C.
- Move the right foot to C in a sliding motion forming a right L-stance toward D while thrusting to C with the right side elbow.
- Bring the left foot to the right foot, turning anti-clockwise to form a closed stance toward B while executing a side front block with the right inner forearm while extending the left forearm to the side downward.
- Execute a side front block with the left inner forearm, extending the right forearm to the side downward while maintaining a closed stance toward B.
- Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B at the same time executing a middle guarding block to B with a knife-hand.
- Bring the left foot to the right foot and then move the right foot to A forming a left L-stance toward A, executing a middle guarding block to A with a knife-hand.
END: Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.
1st Kup Pattern
CHOONG-MOO - 1st kup
Movements - 30
Ready Posture - PARALLEL READY STANCE
- Move the left foot to B forming a right L-stance toward B while executing a twin knife-hand block.
- Move the right foot to B forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a high front strike to B with the right knife-hand and bring the left back hand in front of the forehead.
- Move the right foot to A turning clockwise to form a left L-stance toward A while executing a middle guarding block to A with a knife-hand.
- Move the left foot to A forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a high thrust to A with the left flat finger tip.
- Move the left foot to D forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.
- Turn the face to C forming a left bending ready stance A toward C.
- Execute a middle side piercing kick to C with the right foot.
- Lower the right foot to C forming a right L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.
- Execute a flying side piercing kick to D with the right foot soon after moving it to D and then land to D forming a left L-stance toward D while executing a middle guarding block to D with a knife-hand.
- Move the left foot to E turning anti-clockwise to form a right L-stance toward E at the same time executing a low block to E with the left forearm.
- Extend both hands upward as if to grab the opponent's head while forming a left walking stance toward E, slipping the left foot.
- Execute a right knee upward kick to E, pulling both hands downward.
- Lower the right foot to the left foot and then move the left foot to F forming a left walking stance toward F while executing a high front strike to F with the right reverse knife-hand, bringing the left back hand under the right elbow joint.
- Execute a high turning kick to DF with the right foot and then lower it to the left foot.
- Execute a middle back piercing kick to F with the left foot. Perform 14 and 15 in a fast motion.
- Lower the left foot to F forming a left L-stance toward E while executing a middle guarding block to E with the forearm.
- Execute a middle turning kick to DE with the left foot.
- Lower the left foot to the right foot and move the right foot to C forming a right fixed stance to C while executing a U-shape block toward C.
- Jump and spin around anti-clockwise, landing on the same spot to form a left L-stance to C while executing a middle knife-hand guarding block to C.
- Move the left foot to C forming a left walking stance toward C at the same time executing a low thrust to C with the right upset fingertip.
- Execute a side back strike to D with the right back fist and a low block to C with the left forearm while forming a right L-stance toward C, pulling the left foot.
- Move the right foot to C forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle thrust to C with the right straight finger tip.
- Move the left foot to B turning anti-clockwise to form a left walking stance to B while executing a high block to B with the left double forearm.
- Move the right foot to B forming a sitting stance toward C while executing a middle front block to C with the right forearm and then a high side strike to B with the right back fist.
- Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the right foot turning anti-clockwise and then lower it to A.
- Execute a middle side piercing kick to A with the left foot turning clockwise.
- Lower the left foot to A and then execute a checking block to B with an X-knife-hand, forming a left L-stance toward B pivoting with the left foot.
- Move the left foot to B forming a left walking stance toward B while executing an upward block to B with a twin palm.
- Move the left foot on line AB and then execute a rising block with the right forearm while forming a right walking stance toward A.
- Execute a middle punch to A with the left fist while maintaining a right walking stance toward A.
END: Bring the left foot back to a ready posture.